Kokinou, E.; Sarris, A., "Detection of the near surface structure through a multidisciplinary geophysical approach", Central European Journal of Geosciences, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 349–357.
The present survey aimed to image the subsurface structure, including karstic voids, and to evaluate the extent of the heterogeneities that can result in potentially dangerous collapse of road segments overlying these features. A multidisciplinary geophysical approach (seismic refraction, frequency domain electromagnetic and ground penetrating radar) in combination with a detailed geological survey indicated the presence of tectonic faults as well as velocity and conductivity anomalies along an old road within the area of Akrotiri at Chania (Crete). Due to the presence of subsurface fuel pipes, perpendicular to the direction of the road, 2D resistivity imaging was excluded from the applied geophysical methods. Interpretation of the geophysical data revealed that the section of the road investigated overlies prominent voids attributed mostly to karst features. The conductivity and velocity anomalies are interpreted to indicate an area where the host limestone rock has been downthrown by faulting and associated karstification. The continuation of this fault zone was observed in the slope of the road during later excavations. Interpretation, using geographic information systems (GIS) to integrate data, allowed these controls and relationships to be understood and monitored. The above methodology was proved successful for areas where the application of resistivity method is not possible.https://doi.org/10.2478/s13533-011-0034-2